Although a low budget, the phone is designed to look sleek and alluring with above-average details for operation and performance. Design and Display: The front of the phone has a 5. The display has x pixels resolution with about ppi density.
The lower bezel holds a capacitive home button. The device is framed in aluminum and has a plastic back cover.
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Software and Hardware: The A5 model runs on the Android 4. It is also equipped with a Quad-core Qualcomm Snapdragon processor clocked at 1. Ottawa Downtown. Ottawa Merivale. Ottawa Orleans. Toronto Midtown Toronto. Vancouver Broadway.
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Smartphones are also victims of classic piracy related to the web: phishing , malicious websites, software that run in the background, etc. The big difference is that smartphones do not yet have strong antivirus software available. Sometimes it is possible to overcome the security safeguards by modifying the operating system itself. As real-world examples, this section covers the manipulation of firmware and malicious signature certificates.
These attacks are difficult. In , vulnerabilities in virtual machines running on certain devices were revealed. It was possible to bypass the bytecode verifier and access the native underlying operating system. In it was possible to manipulate the Nokia firmware before it is installed, and in fact in some downloadable versions of it, this file was human readable, so it was possible to modify and change the image of the firmware.
In theory smartphones have an advantage over hard drives since the OS files are in ROM , and cannot be changed by malware. However, in some systems it was possible to circumvent this: in the Symbian OS it was possible to overwrite a file with a file of the same name. When an application is installed, the signing of this application is verified by a series of certificates. One can create a valid signature without using a valid certificate and add it to the list. With firmware changes explained above it is very easy to insert a seemingly valid but malicious certificate.
Juice Jacking is a physical or hardware vulnerability specific to mobile platforms. Utilizing the dual purpose of the USB charge port, many devices have been susceptible to having data exfiltrated from, or malware installed onto a mobile device by utilizing malicious charging kiosks set up in public places or hidden in normal charge adapters. Jail-breaking is also a physical access vulnerability, in which mobile device users initiate to hack into the devices to unlock it, and exploit weaknesses in the operating system.
Mobile device users take control of their own device by jail-breaking it, and customize the interface by installing applications, change system settings that are not allowed on the devices. Thus, allowing to tweak the mobile devices operating systems processes, run programs in the background, thus devices are being expose to variety of malicious attack that can lead to compromise important private data. In , researcher from the University of Pennsylvania investigated the possibility of cracking a device's password through a smudge attack literally imaging the finger smudges on the screen to discern the user's password.
As smartphones are a permanent point of access to the internet mostly on , they can be compromised as easily as computers with malware. A malware is a computer program that aims to harm the system in which it resides. A Trojan is a program that is on the smartphone and allows external users to connect discreetly.
A worm is a program that reproduces on multiple computers across a network. A virus is malicious software designed to spread to other computers by inserting itself into legitimate programs and running programs in parallel. However, it must be said that the malware are far less numerous and important to smartphones as they are to computers. Nonetheless, recent studies show that the evolution of malware in smartphones have rocketed in the last few years posing a threat to analysis and detection. Typically an attack on a smartphone made by malware takes place in 3 phases: the infection of a host, the accomplishment of its goal, and the spread of the malware to other systems.
Malware often uses the resources offered by the infected smartphones. It will use the output devices such as Bluetooth or infrared, but it may also use the address book or email address of the person to infect the user's acquaintances. The malware exploits the trust that is given to data sent by an acquaintance.
Infection is the means used by the malware to get into the smartphone, it can either use one of the faults previously presented or may use the gullibility of the user. Infections are classified into four classes according to their degree of user interaction: . Once the malware has infected a smartphone, it always aims to spread one way or another: .
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Here are various malware that exist in the world of smartphones with a short description of each. Mobile ransomware is a type of malware that locks users out of their mobile devices in a pay-to-unlock-your-device ploy, it has grown by leaps and bounds as a threat category since Mobile ransomware poses a significant threat to businesses reliant on instant access and availability of their proprietary information and contacts. The likelihood of a traveling businessman paying a ransom to unlock their device is significantly higher since they are at a disadvantage given inconveniences such as timeliness and less likely direct access to IT staff.
Recent ransomware attack has caused a stir in the world as the attack caused many of the internet connected devices to not work and companies spent a large amount to recover from these attacks. Below is a diagram which loads the different behaviors of smartphone malware in terms of their effects on smartphones: .
We can see from the graph that at least 50 malware varieties exhibit no negative behavior, except their ability to spread. There is a multitude of malware. This is partly due to the variety of operating systems on smartphones. However attackers can also choose to make their malware target multiple platforms, and malware can be found which attacks an OS but is able to spread to different systems. To begin with, malware can use runtime environments like Java virtual machine or the. NET Framework. They can also use other libraries present in many operating systems. In practice, this type of malware requires a connection between the two operating systems to use as an attack vector.
Memory cards can be used for this purpose, or synchronization software can be used to propagate the virus. The security mechanisms in place to counter the threats described above are presented in this section.
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They are divided into different categories, as all do not act at the same level, and they range from the management of security by the operating system to the behavioral education of the user. The threats prevented by the various measures are not the same depending on the case. Considering the two cases mentioned above, in the first case one would protect the system from corruption by an application, and in the second case the installation of a suspicious software would be prevented.
The first layer of security in a smartphone is the operating system OS. Beyond needing to handle the usual roles of an operating system e. A central paradigm in mobile operating systems is the idea of a sandbox. Since smartphones are currently designed to accommodate many applications, they must have mechanisms to ensure these applications are safe for the phone itself, for other applications and data on the system, and for the user.
If a malicious program reaches a mobile device, the vulnerable area presented by the system must be as small as possible. Sandboxing extends this idea to compartmentalize different processes, preventing them from interacting and damaging each other. Based on the history of operating systems, sandboxing has different implementations. For example, where iOS will focus on limiting access to its public API for applications from the App Store by default, Managed Open In allows you to restrict which apps can access which types of data.
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Above the operating system security, there is a layer of security software. This layer is composed of individual components to strengthen various vulnerabilities: prevent malware, intrusions, the identification of a user as a human, and user authentication. It contains software components that have learned from their experience with computer security; however, on smartphones, this software must deal with greater constraints see limitations.
A mobile antivirus product would scan files and compare them against a database of known mobile malware code signatures. When an application passes the various security barriers, it can take the actions for which it was designed. When such actions are triggered, the activity of a malicious application can be sometimes detected if one monitors the various resources used on the phone. Depending on the goals of the malware, the consequences of infection are not always the same; all malicious applications are not intended to harm the devices on which they are deployed.